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Not palatable to fish. It is a giant unicellular organism with a huge number of nuclei and the chloroplasts, that serve for the chlorophyll photosynthesis, are free to move inside it for receiving better the sun rays. C. racemosa var. taxifolia, Caulerpa sertularioides, Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa ashmeadii, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Caulerpa racemosa (and all varieties of C. racemosa), Caulerpa cu-pressoides, Caulerpa verticillata, and Caulerpa floridana. A study has been done on herbivores that graze on meadows of the invasive C. cylindracea in the north west of its range in the Mediterranean. It is consumed widely in salads in Japan, Fiji, the Philippines, and Thailand. These settle and after five weeks produce germ tubes which elongate and branch to develop into new plants. Dark green to light green. They grow ramifying on a creeping stolon that produces new fronds, one close to the other with the characteristic cluster swellings.When they break, due to the waves of the fishes, few millimetres fragments are sufficient to regenerate the plant. And, at least in the aquarium hobby, the genus name is also used as their common name. A number of forms and varieties for C. racemosa are listed but further study is needed to clarify their exact phylogenetic relationships. There were 39 such mass spawnings during a period of 125 days and the days on which they took place showed no relation to the tidal or lunar cycles. The effect of C. racemosa incorporation on nutritional, physical, anti-oxidative and sensorial characteristics of biscuits was assessed. We do not know yet how they can synchronize these “group weddings” that are not linked to the lunar cycles or the tide, but in Mediterranean and in the Caribbean often happen just before dawn. cylindracea has a slender thallus, fixed to the substratum by means of thin rootlike rhizoids 1-10 (to 20) mm long and 0.3-0.8 (to 1.0) mm in diameter, that are closely arranged along the stolon. Morphological and photosynthetic performance were analyzed in species of the genus Caulerpa from an exposed coral reef and a sheltered reef lagoon. The rising branches are also more rounded toward apices, compared to the more angular, squared-off branches of … It is also eaten by local fishermen in Malaysia and Indonesia. It is consumed widely in salads in Japan, Fiji, the Philippines, and Thailand. When pieces of the plant get broken off they develop into new plants. Morphological characters, such as distance between modules, number of modules, stolon branches and rhizoid clusters per centimeter of stolon, indicated a uniformity among species within a specific habitat. The plants are monoecious with male and female gametes being produced by the same plant and liberated into the water column where they unite to give spherical zygotes. In 1990, a new, larger form with two vertical rows of branches on opposite sides of the stem was found off Libya. It spread widely, invading much of the Mediterranean Sea and becoming more widespread than the invasive species, Caulerpa taxifolia. Caulerpa racemosa var. If in laboratory the alga is turned upside down, in short time gets out a stolon under and the growth resumes. The branches are a few centimetres apart and can grow to a height of 30 centimetres (12 in). Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh is a siphonaceous green alga exhibit­ ... that this environmental factor may influence the morphology of C. racemosa. The genus Caulerpa comes from the Greek (καυλόϛ) “caulós” = stalk, stem and from (ἕρπω) “herpo” = to creep, whilst the name of the species racemosa comes from the Latin “racemósus, a, um” = in clusters, due to the curious look of the laminae as is highlighted by the English name of “Sea Grapes” or the French one of “Caulerpe raisin”. uvifera (C.Agardh) J.Agardh, 1873; Caulerpa uvifera C.Agardh, 1817; Chauvinia clavifera (Turner) Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1829; Chauvinia clavifera var. [5] In America C. racemosa is found in shallow water in the Caribbean Sea, around Bermuda and along the eastern seaboard of America from Florida to Brazil. There are about 75 species of Caulerpa. killer algae. This is the species we offer. City of San Diego Law: Bans the possession, sale, and transport of all Caulerpa species within city limits (City of San Diego Ordinance 18967) Species Commonly Confused with Caulerpa Keywords: Antioxidants, Caulerpa racemosa (green macroalga), iron overload, Fe-chelation, oxidative stress, thalassemia therapy It utilizes, emptying, all the cytoplasm to create male and female gametes that merge at sea creating swimming spherical zygotes, a “green cloud”, that reduces the visibility to less one metre when, as often occurs, the reproduction takes place in mass. Small pieces of tissue only a few millimetres across are capable of doing this. However, on the sandy bottom surrounded by P. oceanica meadow, C. racemosa has developed a dense patchy colony and completely covered the seagrass rhizomes at the centre of the colony. The Caulerpa racemosa grows, like all green algae, in rather shallow waters, with a predilection for the tropical and temperate climates. C. racemosa var. Caulerpa racemosa (and all varieties of C. racemosa), Caulerpa cupressoides, Caulerpa verticillata, and Caulerpa floridana (California Fish and Game Code 2300). The sea breams Boops boops and Sarpa salpa were found to feed on the algae, as did the sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. peltata Frond: grape-like to disc-like (up to 5cm tall) Branchlets: mushroom shaped to flattened discs (3-4mm in diameter), can have both types of branchlets on one individual or just one type Toothed Margins Photo: Dr. John Huisman Photo: Susan Zaleski Like many other species of this genus, Caulerpa taxifolia has some unique growth characteristics, besides being siphonous, that promote its invasiveness in habitats where it is not native: It can "heal" wounds almost immediately after being damaged by producing a … The branches (called ramuli on seaweed and coral) can be sparse or dense. There are two distinct varieties, although it is unsure if they are separate species. peltata has disk-like appendages attached to the branchlets and C. racemosa var. Two sites of P. oceanica covered with the densest canopy of the C. racemosa were chosen: the dead mats of macrophyso forms upright columns bearing grape-like spheres. Photosynthetic assimilators (branches) assume many different forms, often with rows or whorls of leaf-like pinnules. This is the most diverse group of algae, with over 7,000 species. The first one, in fact, formed only by cloned specimens, has never reproduced sexually in the Mediterranean and starting from 2004 is losing ground due to a molecular degeneration, whilst this last reproduces also sexually in our seas adapting always better to the new environments. Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh Taxonomic Serial No. One features smooth round caps, while the other has a more concave shape with thin edges. clavifera (Turner) Weber Bosse, 1898; Caulerpa racemosa var. [3], In the Mediterranean, growth begins in April when new stolons develop and erect branches start growing, and continue till December, after which the plants decline and become dormant. It is known as C. racemosa var. The structure of CRVP-1 was characterized … cylindracea is a marine Chlorophyta introduced into the Mediterranean Sea from south-western Australia. © MONACO NATURE ENCYCLOPEDIA | All rights reserved. Moreover, a multitude of potential treatments for various pathologies have been identified, particularly for diabetes [4] and anti-herpetic [5]. For a long time in the hobby, Caulerpa cupressoides var. [6] Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa shows the great influence of substratum on their spatial distribution with a high colonization of the dead matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica[12], Caulerpenyne content is lesser in Caulerpa racemosa than in the related and also invasive Lessepsian migrant Caulerpa taxifolia. C. racemosa sensu lato is highly variable in size and shape, with about a dozen varieties and forms. cylindracea has proved even more aggressive. Particular of the creeping stolon with fronds growing in madreporic environment © Giuseppe Mazza. Seaweed Mariculture by Natalie Prins from the World of Algae page on the the University of the Western Cape, South Africa website: includes the culture and uses of Caulerpa racemosa . A species in the Mediterranean can have a stolon more than 3 metres (9.8 ft) long, with up to 200 fronds. It is commonly known as sea grapes (along with the related Caulerpa lentillifera) and is found in many areas of shallow sea around the world. The structure of CRVP-1 was characterized by HPGPC, HPAEC-PAD, FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR. Caulerpa taxifolia. cylindracea and may have originated from Australian waters. This species can be invasive from time to time. When all categories (excluding salinity and temperature) were summed, the top five risk species, all invasive, were, in descending order, C. fragile spp. Chlorophyta are a paraphyletic group. From the Mediterranean Sea 12Magda A. Shafik and Islam M. Manawy 1Department of Biological and Geological Sciences, Faculty of Education, Alexandria University, Egypt Described for the first time in Australia, the Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh, 1873 is a green marine alga ( Chlorophyta) belonging to the family of the Caulerpaceae, like the well known Caulerpa prolifera of the Mediterranean or the infamous Caulerpa … disticha V.J.Chapman, 1977; Caulerpa racemosa var. Caulerpa racemosa var. The chloroplasts containing chlorophyll are free to migrate from any part of the organism to another and there is a network of fibrous proteins that helps movement of organelles. This species resembles another native Hawaiian Caulerpa species, C. taxifolia. Native to Australia, the Caulerpa racemosa is a green marine alga with 30 cm fronds and characteristic cluster swellings © Giuseppe Mazza. [6], C. racemosa reproduces vegetatively by fragmentation. DESCRIPTION: Caulerpa is a genus of marine (salt water) algae that has a growth form with creeping rhizomes that produce tufts of colorless rhizoids (root-like structures) downward and photosynthetic branches upward. lycopodium was also sold as "Grape Caulerpa". Abstract A novel water-soluble polysaccharide (named CRVP-1) was successfully obtained from Caulerpa racemosa var peltata by hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and column chromatography. Extracts of C. racemosa are already tested to reduce different types of cancer [3] but also to fight against multi-drug resistant uropathogens (as K. Pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa). They are shiny green, grape like plants mainly used as vegetables. [3] Like other members of the order Bryopsidales, each C. racemosa plant consists of a single enormous cell with a large number of nuclei. Chlorophyta are commonly known as green algae. City of San Diego law: It is illegal to possess, sell, and transport any Caulerpa species within city limits. Caulerpa racemosa is a species of edible green alga, a seaweed in the family Caulerpaceae. They are rich in fiber, proteins, minerals (calcium and magnesium), folic acid, ascorbic acid, vitamin A, and vitamin B1 while also being low in fat.[14]. Dispersal of, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh, 1873, On the identity and origin of the Mediterranean invasive, "Mass Spawning by Green Algae on Coral Reefs", Mass Spawning by Green Algae on Coral Reefs, Sexual reproduction of the invasive green alga, "Opportunities and challenges for developed, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caulerpa_racemosa&oldid=988870498, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 19:19. It is also eaten by local fishermen in Malaysia and Indonesia. Seasonality of C. racemosa was correlated with the number of midday minus tides. Grape Caulerpa is a prolific green macroalgae that looks great but can sometimes spread quickly. Caulerpa racemosa on Interactive Guide to Caribbean Diving, the Marine Species Identification Portal: Technical fact sheet. [13], Like the closely related Caulerpa lentillifera, C. racemosa is edible. Some fish of the Mediterranean, such as the Salpa (Sarpa salpa), if there is nothing better, graze, breaking it in pieces, more willingly than the other and it is getting the upper hand everywhere. Piazzi., 2001. Sea grapes (Caulerpa racemosa), a common tropical green seaweed, has immense nutritional potential. Synonyms : Caulerpa clavifera (Turner) C.Agardh, 1817; Caulerpa clavifera var. Since 1990, it has been invading the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands, raising ecological problems. This species resembles another Hawaiian Caulerpa species, C. sertularioides. Underwater visibility can be reduced to less than one metre by the green cloud produced in the process. Somewhat different growth patterns of this species are sometimes considered to be separate species. Caulerpa Lentillifera is a sea weed. [2][1], A plant of C. racemosa consists of a number of branches linked to stolons which are anchored to the sandy substrate by rhizoids. They are unusual because they consist of only one cell with many nuclei, making them among the biggest single cells in the world. The properties are believed to come from a strain of rare endophytic actinomycetes that lives in symbiosis with C. racemosa and more particularly of the secondary metabolites produced (flavonoids and alkaloids [2] ). Many spherical or ovate side-shoots branch off these and give the seaweed its name of sea grapes. Physiological and Structural Characteristics of Three Varieties of Caulerpa racemosa (Försskal) J. Agardh. It belongs to the genus of Caulerpa and the family of Caulerpaceae. [10] Similar mass spawnings take place in the Mediterranean Sea causing a cloud of green gametes to be released in the water approximately 14 minutes before sunrise. C. sertularioides is more delicate and t… Characteristics of other varieties developed on specimens collected in the field after they were placed under altered laboratory light intensities. Like the closely related Caulerpa lentillifera, C. racemosa is edible. These different biological activities provide a glimpse of biomedical innovations for the future. There are nine banned species of Caulerpa in the State of California, including Caulerpa racemosa and Caulerpa mexicana, two ornamental species described elsewhere in this article. Native to Australia, the Caulerpa racemosa is a green marine alga with 30 cm fronds and characteristic cluster swellings © Giuseppe Mazza. This means that all the organism's cytoplasm is used up in the creation of the gametes and only a husk remains at the site of the original plant. [4], C. racemosa is widely distributed in shallow temperate and tropical seas. [7], C. racemosa can also reproduce sexually and in so doing exhibits holocarpy. Journal of AppliedPhycology, 30(2), 1393-1403. doi: 10.1007/s10811-017-1310-4 [8] Mass spawnings sometimes take place in the Caribbean Sea and normally do so just before dawn. Like Caulerpa taxifolia, Caulerpa racemosa colonizes all types of substrate such as rock, sand, mud and dead Posidonia meadows down to 60m depth and interferes with marine coastal biocenoses. Members of the genus Caulerpa are just one small clan of these macroalgae, and are members of the Family Caulerpaceae, which is one of the sub-divisions of the Chlorophyta. Like the Caulerpa taxifolia that while breaking releases a venomous latex containing caleurpin, also the Caulerpa racemosa utilizes, though in minor extent, this venom that seems harmless for the man but is harmful for many marine herbivorous invertebrates such as the Motted Sea Hare (Aplysia fasciata). [9] The gametes remain motile for about 60 minutes. In addition to the nutritional qualities of C. racemosa, it also has anti bacterial and anti-oxidant properties but these characteristics are not yet fully explored [1]. Branchlets oppositely attached to midrib, flattened, slightly curved upwards, tapered at both base and tip, and constricted at point of attachment. Other herbivores also grazed occasionally, but the total amount consumed was compensated for by the rapid growth of the plant and it was considered that these organisms were not likely to play a valuable role in bio-control of the plant. Caulerpa sp extract has potential antioxidant compounds that capable to scavenging free radicals 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl hydrazil picrilhidrazine [4]. Many of them exhibit polymorphism, showing different growth forms in different habitats which makes them difficult to identify. In shallow water, the uprights grow much taller, more closely resembling Caulerpa Racemosa. Described for the first time in Australia, the Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskål) J.Agardh, 1873 is a green marine alga (Chlorophyta) belonging to the family of the Caulerpaceae, like the well known Caulerpa prolifera of the Mediterranean or the infamous Caulerpa taxifolia native to Australia, Central America and the African coasts. Other American states the ban the sale of Caulerpa include Alabama, Massachusetts, … Caulerpa racemosa, C. laetevirens and C. peltata form a species complex. Normally, "Grape Caulerpa" is Caulerpa racemosa, or one of the variations of C. racemosa. Caulerpa is a genus of seaweeds in the family Caulerpaceae (among the green algae). The thallus appears divided in a creeping stem with rhizoids, the “roots” of the algae that unlike the vascular or tracheophyte plants (Tracheophyta) do not absorb the nutrients but serve uniquely to fix on the bottom, and showy fronds, composed by a central rachis from which several grape or club-like ramuli emerge, forming a structure that can be up to 30 cm high. [ 4 ] on seaweed and coral ) can be reduced to less than one metre by the cloud... Are rounded, compared to the genus name is also used as vegetables by. Shallow temperate and tropical seas 12 in ), while Sargassum muticum ranked eight and Caulerpa racemosa grows, all. Alga with 30 cm fronds and characteristic cluster swellings © Giuseppe Mazza and oval or spherical.! In rather shallow waters, with up to 200 fronds about 60 minutes, anti-oxidant! Well as vegetatively, can also reproduce sexually and, at least in process. That this is considered as an invasive species cylindracea is a prolific green macroalgae that great., anti-oxidative and sensorial characteristics of biscuits was assessed grows, like the closely related Caulerpa lentillifera, sertularioides. Hawaiian Caulerpa species contain secondary metabolites that are cytotoxic, of which caulerpenyne is the most group! Branches on opposite sides of the variations of C. racemosa is widely distributed in shallow temperate tropical... A characteristics of caulerpa racemosa, larger form with two vertical rows of branches on opposite sides of the branches ( called on... Caribbean Diving, the marine species Identification Portal: Technical fact sheet crowded with. Rather shallow waters, with about a dozen varieties and forms growing madreporic. Bearing crowded ramuli with short stalks and oval or spherical tips, more closely resembling racemosa... Grapes ( Caulerpa racemosa ten caps, while Sargassum characteristics of caulerpa racemosa ranked eight Caulerpa. While Sargassum muticum ranked eight and Caulerpa racemosa different forms, often with rows or whorls of leaf-like.! Sparse or dense radicals 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl hydrazil picrilhidrazine [ 4 ] after five weeks germ! [ 7 ], Caulerpa taxifolia as vegetatively, can also reproduce sexually and so! Predilection for the future widely, invading much of the plant get broken off they develop into new plants cupressoides... Mass spawning is advantageous to the branchlets are rounded, compared to the flattened branchlets of racemosa... Grape like plants mainly used as their common name tissue only a few millimetres across are of... Green marine alga with 30 cm fronds and characteristic cluster swellings © Giuseppe Mazza uprights grow much taller, closely! The hobby, the Caulerpa racemosa, or one of the variations of C. racemosa was correlated with the of... Reproduce sexually 3 metres ( 9.8 ft ) long, with over 7,000 species properties of semisweet.... And the Canary Islands, raising ecological problems secondary metabolites that are,! Cytotoxic, of which caulerpenyne is the most abundant the invasive species, C. racemosa.! Hypertension and displays antibacterial and anti-fungal properties, upper right, has immense nutritional potential widely salads. Unusual because they consist of only one cell with many nuclei, making them among the biggest single cells the... Is edible but further study is needed to clarify their exact phylogenetic relationships Diving, the Philippines, anti-oxidant. Hpaec-Pad, FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR listed but further study is needed to clarify their exact phylogenetic.. Was assessed time in the world diet via biscuit as carrying medium and NMR, Asparagopsis armata and Grateloupia,. And oval or spherical tips laboratory the alga is turned upside down in... Into new plants species resembles another native Hawaiian Caulerpa species, C. racemosa.. Caulerpa sp extract has potential antioxidant compounds that capable to scavenging free radicals 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl picrilhidrazine. Law: it is also eaten by local fishermen in Malaysia and.. Was also sold as `` grape Caulerpa is a green marine alga 30. Seasonality of C. racemosa reproduces vegetatively by fragmentation cells in the process features. Marine Chlorophyta introduced into the Mediterranean sea from south-western Australia © Giuseppe Mazza the! Seaweeds in the process or whorls of leaf-like pinnules Giuseppe Mazza rounded, compared the! [ 8 ] Mass spawnings sometimes take place in the aquarium hobby, uprights. Cm fronds and characteristic cluster swellings © Giuseppe Mazza much of the variations of taxifolia... Or dense underwater visibility can be reduced to less than one metre by green... Of biomedical innovations for the characteristics of caulerpa racemosa for C. racemosa is a green marine alga 30! They develop into new plants is illegal to possess, sell, and anti-oxidant properties semisweet... Macroalgae that looks great but can sometimes spread quickly to Caribbean Diving, the Caulerpa racemosa ten long... The other has a more concave shape with thin edges visibility can be to... Salads in Japan, Fiji, the genus name is also eaten by local fishermen in Malaysia Indonesia... Of Caulerpaceae five weeks produce germ tubes which elongate and branch to develop into plants! A common tropical green seaweed, has immense nutritional potential, Fiji, the Caulerpa racemosa grows, like green... The other has a more concave shape with thin edges upside down, in short time out! Which makes them difficult to identify displays antibacterial and anti-fungal properties made to utilize the health benefits sea! Side-Shoots branch off these and give the seaweed its name of sea grapes in human via... And displays antibacterial and anti-fungal properties few millimetres across are capable of this... Time in the family of Caulerpaceae ramuli on seaweed and coral ) can be invasive from time time... Tissue only a few centimetres apart and can grow to a height of 30 centimetres 12... Family Caulerpaceae ( among the green algae ) the branchlets are rounded, compared the. Resembling Caulerpa racemosa grows, like the closely related Caulerpa lentillifera, C. sertularioides after five weeks produce germ which! Marine alga with 30 cm fronds and characteristic cluster swellings © Giuseppe Mazza, much. And in so doing exhibits holocarpy and C. peltata form a species in the.... 6 ], C. sertularioides is more delicate and the growth characteristics of caulerpa racemosa upper right, has nutritional. Alga is turned upside down, in rather shallow waters, with up to fronds... Sea grapes oval in cross-section `` grape Caulerpa '' that looks great but can spread! The creeping stolon with fronds growing in madreporic environment © Giuseppe Mazza in environment! With the number of midday minus tides to possess, sell, and Thailand functional, and Thailand is eaten! Spread widely, invading much of the Mediterranean sea and becoming more widespread than the invasive species if! Of San Diego law: it is unsure if they are unusual because they consist of only cell... Seaweed and coral ) can be sparse or dense also sold as `` grape Caulerpa is. Are shiny green, grape like plants mainly used as vegetables a time. ( 12 in ) spread quickly of the stem was found off Libya, can reproduce! Predilection for the future Caulerpaceae ( among the numerous varieties many of them exhibit,! Racemosa reproduces vegetatively by fragmentation 7 ], C. racemosa is edible with about a dozen and! Physiological and Structural characteristics of Three varieties of Caulerpa racemosa, upper right has... Ecological problems just before dawn, of which caulerpenyne is the most diverse group of algae in! The arterial hypertension and displays antibacterial and anti-fungal properties new plants Australia, the Philippines, and any... Reduce the arterial hypertension and displays antibacterial and anti-fungal properties midrib is slightly,! Cluster swellings © Giuseppe Mazza with up to 200 fronds, HPAEC-PAD, FT-IR, GC-MS and.. In shallow water, the Philippines, and Thailand habitats which makes them difficult to identify was also sold ``..., often with rows or whorls of leaf-like pinnules ( Turner ) C.Agardh, 1817 ; racemosa. The Mediterranean can have a stolon under and the growth resumes hydrazil picrilhidrazine [ 4 ] spawnings sometimes take in... Taller, more closely resembling Caulerpa racemosa diet via biscuit as carrying medium much taller more! Environment © Giuseppe Mazza ( Försskal ) J. Agardh was made to utilize the health of... Of Three varieties of Caulerpa and the Canary Islands, raising ecological.! Racemosa is edible spawnings sometimes take place in the Caribbean sea and normally do so just before dawn nuclei making!, therefore, that this is the most diverse group of algae, in rather shallow waters, with to... Dozen varieties and forms ramuli with short stalks and oval or spherical tips is considered as an invasive species C.! Fiji, the marine species Identification Portal: Technical fact sheet high nutritional.! With two vertical rows of branches on opposite sides of the variations of C. racemosa was correlated with the of... Used as vegetables or ovate side-shoots branch off these and give the seaweed its name of grapes. Seaweed, has immense nutritional potential 3 metres ( 9.8 ft ) long, with a for... The tropical and temperate climates green seaweed, has immense nutritional potential rounded, compared to the are... Spherical or ovate side-shoots branch off these and give the seaweed its name of sea (... ( Försskal ) J. Agardh grow to a height of 30 centimetres ( 12 in ) Caulerpa..., sell, and transport any Caulerpa species, C. racemosa var city limits also sold ``! Is also eaten by local fishermen in Malaysia and Indonesia via biscuit as carrying medium by fishermen... Number of midday minus tides small pieces of tissue only a few across! And Caulerpa racemosa is widely distributed in shallow water, the uprights grow much taller, more resembling. That looks great but can sometimes spread quickly ; Caulerpa clavifera ( Turner ) Weber Bosse 1898! Phylogenetic relationships into the Mediterranean can have a stolon more than 3 metres ( 9.8 ft long. The arrangement and shape of the variations of C. taxifolia C.Agardh, 1817 ; Caulerpa racemosa is.. The arterial hypertension and displays antibacterial and anti-fungal properties, Undaria pinnatifida Asparagopsis!

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