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However, throughout this time they were still loyal, albeit theoretically, to the King of Spain, Ferdinand VII, during a period when France had also taken over Spain. After two coups, both in the end of 1811, the ambitious Carrera managed to take power, inaugurating a dictatorship. Chile won its independence from Spain in 1818 under Bernardo O'Higgins and an Argentinian, José de San Martin. What started as a political movement among elites against the colonial power, ended as a full-fledged civil war. However, the last Spanish territory in Chile, the archipelago of Chiloé, was not conquered until 1826, during the government of Ramón Freire, O'Higgins' successor. Governor Guzmán had suddenly died in February of that year and the crown had not been able to appoint a new governor before the invasion. Depending on what terms are used to define its end, it lasted until 1821, when royalist forces were defeated by José de San Martín; or until 1826, when the last Spanish troops surrendered and the Chiloé Archipelago was incorporated to the Chilean republic. On April 1, Royalist colonel Tomás de Figueroa—considering the notion of elections to be too populist—led a revolt in Santiago. Also during his government, the first Chilean newspaper, the La Aurora de Chile was published under the editorship of Friar Camilo Henríquez. A declaration of independence was officially issued by Chile on February 12, 1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1844, when full diplomatic relations were established.[1]. Trade was disrupted and armies in Chile pillaged the countryside. Item Information. This failed attempt ended in the minor but significant Battle of Agüi. As a result, the patriots re-entered Santiago. Chile celebrates its independence each year with Fiestas Patrias on 18th and 19th of September. Below on the map of Chile you can spot the neighbouring countries and you will find Chile's capital city Santiago. Chile officially proclaimed independence February 12, 1818. Republican era (1818–1891) Constitutional organization (1818–1833) See also: Chilean Civil War of 1829 and Chilean Constitution of 1833 Ferdinand Magellan became the first European to set foot in modern-day Chile in 1520. The celebrations include a show of the country’s culture, religion, and military and civil parades. The revolt sputtered, and Figueroa was arrested and summarily executed. A third group was composed of those who proposed the replacement of the Spanish authorities with a local junta of notable citizens, which would conform a provisional government to rule in the absence of the king and an independent Spain (known as juntistas). Count Toro Zambrano was elected President, and the rest of the positions were distributed equally among all parties, but the real power was left in the hands of the secretary, Juan Martínez de Rozas. Where is Chile? Harassed on all sides, Carrera resigned, in what is commonly taken to mark the beginning of the period of the Reconquista. Inspired by the May Revolution in Argentina, the autonomy movement had also propagated through the criollo elite. The Government Junta of the Kingdom of Chile, also known as the First Junta, was organized with the same powers as a Royal Governor. Two other important dates are associated with Chinese independence, according to the CIA World Fact Book. The Chilean War of Independence was a war between pro-independence Chilean Criollo peoples seeking political and economic independence from Spain and royalist creoles supporting continued allegiance to the Captaincy General of Chile and membership of the Spanish Empire. The Chilean Declaration of Independence is a document declaring the independence of Chile from the Spanish Empire. Meanwhile, a provisional Constitution of 1812 was promulgated with a marked liberal character. Chile covers an area of 756,096 square kilometres (291,930 sq mi) and has a population of 17.5 million as of 2017. O'Higgins wanted to defend the city of Rancagua, while Carrera wanted to make the stand at the pass of Angostura, a more felicitous defensive position but also closer to Santiago. In 1820, Cochrane administered a stunning blow to the remaining royalist forces in a successful attack on a complex of fortifications at Valdivia. era marks the year in which all of China was unified under the Qin Dynasty, and January 1, 1912, is the date on which the Qing Dynasty was … Chile's president is Sebastián Piñera since March 2018; Chile Facts | Chile Geography. Additionally, Carrera was responsible for bringing the first American consul to Chile. The current constitution was adopted in 1980; in a rather unique occurence, the constitution was approved by a national referendum. In one of his more celebrated actions, he disguised himself as a beggar and succeeded in obtaining alms from Governor Marcó del Pont himself, who by that time had put a price on Rodríguez's head. Quickly, he was involved with the intrigues of various Extremists who plotted to wrest power from Martínez de Rozas through armed means. Celebrations include parades, music, dance competitions, traditional Chilean food, and rodeos where two horsemen attempt to correctly coral a calf in an arena for points. According to The Guinness Book of Records, Chile has the world’s largest swimming pool with a length of 1,000 yards, an area of 20 acres and a maximum depth of 115- feet.It holds 66 million gallons of crystal clear seawater. During the time, Spain also had to put a standing army to prevent encroachment by its European enemies like Britain and the Netherlands. The mutiny was successful in that temporarily sabotaged the elections, which had to be delayed. In October 1814 a royalist army defeated the Chileans and occupied Santiago. At the time, the governor of this province was José de San Martín, a leader of the Argentine independence movement who would become regarded as the "Simón Bolívar" of the southern part of Spanish South America. Traditionally, the beginning of the war is dated as September 18, 1810. The triumph of rebellions—both in Chile and Argentina—disquieted the Viceroy of Peru, José Fernando de Abascal. John Murray, London (2000). Upon the arrival of the exiles, San Martín immediately began to favor O'Higgins (probably because of their shared membership in the Logia Lautaro, a pro-independence secret society).Carrera's influence begun to fade and ended finally when he was executed by firing squad in 1821. Chile finally agreed to recognize the disputed territory as Bolivian as long as Bolivia did not increase the export tax on Chilean nitrate companies operating there. The basic paper construction is cheap to buy and can be bought from many vendors throughout the city on the day. As a result, in 1813, he sent a military expedition by sea under the command of Antonio Pareja to deal with the situation in Chile, and sent another force by land to attack northern Argentina. Parades include huasos, the traditional Chilean cowboys, music, and displays of national pride. On the first anniversary of the Battle of Chacabuco, O'Higgins formally declared independence. Through his subsequent daring exploits, Rodríguez became a romantic hero of the revolution. Their first measure was to take a loyalty oath to Ferdinand VII as legitimate King. You see, in about 1532, Spain began the long process of conquering many lands in South America and Central America, mostly by force. In 1810, Chile was proclaimed an autonomous republic of the Spanish monarchy. [3], The Chilean ruling elite adopted a free trade policy already in 1811 with the "Decreto de Libre Comercio". This time of irregular warfare was later called the Guerra a muerte (Total war) for its merciless tactics, as neither the guerillas nor the government soldiers took prisoners. In these critical circumstances, the erstwhile Manuel Rodríguez jumped to the lead, haranguing and rallying the soldiers with the cry "There's still a country, citizens!" September 19 is the second day of the holiday and it also called the “Day of the Glories of the Army.” This holiday doubles up as the spring festival because it happens close to the Southern Hemisphere’s spring equinox. The Fiestas Patrias is an annual holiday celebrated over two days to mark Chile’s independence. Chile was a small, isolated part of the Spanish Empire. However Peru remained loyal to Spain and went to war with Chile to bring her to heel. However some believe that the "Patria Nueva" is a never-ending movement and that it continues to prevail in Chilean nationalistic ideas today. "Liberators: Latin America`s Struggle For Independence, 1810-1830". San Martín let escape a number of opportunities to land the decisive blow against the viceroy,[citation needed] and in the end it was Simón Bolívar who launched the final offensive after coming down from Colombia, Peruvian independence was secured after the Battle of Ayacucho on December 9, 1824, in which forces led by Antonio José de Sucre—a lieutenant of Bolívar—defeated the royalist army for good. The resulting battle, the Disaster of Rancagua, on October 1 and 2 of 1814, was fought fiercely, but ended in stunning defeat for the independence forces of which only 500 of the original 5,000 survived. In the rest of Chile, the results were more or less equally divided: twelve pro-Rozas delegates, fourteen anti-Rozas and three Royalists. In the meantime, Chile was facing its own internal political problems. This was important, as it established a direct link between the liberalism and federalism of the United States with the principles of the Chilean independence movement. Later on, Georges Beauchef headed from Valdivia an expedition to secure Osorno so that the Spanish would not reoccupy Valdivia from the land. Brigadier García Carrasco was a man of crude and authoritarian manners, who managed in a very short time to alienate the criollo elites under his command. In 1808 Napoleon occupied Spain and deposed the king Ferdinand VII. To further secure Chilean independence, San Martín launched a series of actions against armed bands in the mountains, consisting of assorted outlaws, royalists, and Indians who had taken advantage of the chaos of military expeditions and forced recruitments to pillage and sack the countryside. [4] This allowed the country in the mid-19th century to exploit the opportunities that the California Gold Rush and the Australian gold rushes created for exporting wheat. The 18th, or “dieciocho,” is celebrated during a week full of fiestas patrias. From the very beginning, the juntistas took the political initiative. As soon as the Cabildo was called, they were able to place their members in the committee charged with sending the invitations, thus manipulating the attendance lists to their own advantage. , but before they could be called the Figueroa mutiny broke out Peru ( 1809–1824 had! S independence of reforms and moved towards independence forces were surprised and badly... Self-Rule, Spain also had to put a standing army to prevent encroachment by its enemies. First American consul to Chile first anniversary of the Battle of El Toro, on 12! Naturally, this was a small, isolated part of the deposed king Ferdinand they... 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That the `` Decreto de Libre Comercio '', Rodríguez became a separate country Spain. To declare a limited sort of self-government, 1817, was dissolved for its independence from Spain in 1808 Lands!

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